The questions FINE examines

FINE is an alternative dispute resolution body that works in the same manner as courts of law. At request, it may issue solution recommendations of insurance, banking and securities disputes. In its examination of the case, FINE follows the general principles of fair trials and civil procedure. In dispute cases under the ADR Law, FINE complies with the obligations imposed on these issues.

FINE examines the disputes and issues recommendation solutions through its office (the Finnish Financial Ombudsman Bureau) and the Insurance, Banking and Securities Complaints Boards. The solutions issued by FINE for the disputes between the customer and the service provider are recommendations by nature.

The disputes that have an established solution practice and are legally unambiguous will be examined by the FINE Bureau. The Complaints Board focus on complicated disputes that are open to interpretations.

Insurance issues

FINE examines disputes related to the insurance relationship as well as to the interpretation and application of legislation and insurance terms and conditions. The recommendation for a solution can be requested by the policyholder, the insured, the injured party, the beneficiary or the insurance company in question.

FINE examines disputes regarding voluntary insurance policies. FINE does not examine disputes related to statutory insurance policies, such as the workers' compensation insurance or the patient insurance. The only partial exception to this rule is the motor liability insurance. The disputes on this insurance are only taken up by FINE if the Traffic Accident Board is not competent to examine the particular dispute related to the motor liability insurance.

FINE also examines insurance issues brought to it by companies and self-employed persons.

In insurance issues, the correct appeal procedure and deadlines are indicated in the instructions of appeal attached to the insurance company decision. The instructions for appeal may sometimes be found on the back of the decision page.


FINE issues solution recommendations to resolve disputes related to the banking relationship, brought to the Complaints Board by the customer or the bank in question.

FINE issues recommendations on how to solve complaints lodged by consumers, SMEs and other comparable customers.


FINE issues recommendations for resolutions to disputes presented by non-professional investor customers and service providers.

FINE will examine cases between a service provider and a non-professional investor customer in relation to investment and mutual fund services as referred to in the Act on Investment Service Companies and the Act on Common Funds. FINE’s recommendations focus on the application of legislation, administrative regulations, good securities market practice and contractual terms as well as on the service provider’s course of action. The recommendations may also address the amount of compensation. FINE also examines disputes between a customer and an insurance company on the subject of investment-type insurance policies.

Further information:

For more detailed information on the operation of the Insurance Complaints Board, the Banking Complaints Board and the Investment Complaints Board, please click here for FINE's regulations.